We are going to begin by morphology, and that deals with morphemes (this new limited devices away from linguistic function and you may meaning), and how they generate right up terminology.
We’ll upcoming talk about phonology, which works closely with phonemes (this new meaningless points you to definitely “explain” the fresh new voice of morphemes), and you may phonetics, and therefore training the way in which vocabulary is actually embodied in the pastime regarding speaking, brand new ensuing real musical, in addition to means of speech perception..
Following we’re going to glance at sentence structure, and this works with the way terminology is actually joint with the phrases and you can sentences. Fundamentally, we are going to take one or two regions of definition, particularly semantics, which works closely with how phrases is actually associated with one thing about business outside code, and you can pragmatics, and that works together with just how anybody fool around with all the levels of words to speak.
The strange characteristics out-of morphology
Away from a health-related views, morphology ‘s the oddest of one’s levels of linguistic investigation. As i promote this lecture so you can a basic classification, I’m constantly reminded from precisely what the particle physicist Isidor Rabi said as he read about new advancement of your own muon: “Whom bought you to?” By serendipity, it morning’s Ny Moments have a peek at a unique guide, “The new Browse of the Quark”, one informs the story:
On fifth century B.C., one to prescient Greek philosopher become humankind into the search for the newest universe’s ultimate foundations as he recommended that all number is produced from infinitesimally brief dust called atoms. In the 1897, british physicist J. J. Thomson challenging the challenge when he found the first subatomic particle, the newest electron. Afterwards, anybody else accepted the new proton and you can neutron. As the atom smashers expanded next pair ages, myriads out of ephemeral dirt appeared in brand new debris, a veritable Greek alphabet soup out of lambdas, sigmas and you will pions. ”Who purchased one?” exclaimed the newest theorist Isidor We. Rabi in the event the muon is actually known.
Because of the first type of human verbal code, the degree of phonology, syntax, semantics and you will pragmatics are perhaps unavoidable. It will not need to look exactly the manner in which they do, perhaps, however, there must be one thing to perform some work of each one of these profile.
Prepositions inform you all of the adopting the particular relationships but
However, morphology is largely gratuitous, plus state-of-the-art and you may unpredictable: whatever a vocabulary does with morphology, they usually can including create far more straightforwardly that have sentence structure; as there are always different code one to really does an equivalent material with sentence structure.
Such as, English morphology inflects nouns so you’re able to indicate plurality: thus pets form “several puppy”. So it inflection allows us to become specific, when you look at the a tight method, regarding distinction between one and-than-one. Naturally, we can usually state the same thing for the a very elaborated way, utilising the types of syntax in place of morphology: more than one puppy. Whenever we desire to be unclear, we need to getting long-winded: a minumum of one animals.
Modern Fundamental Chinese (also known as “Mandarin” otherwise “Putonghua”) can make exactly the opposite solutions: there’s no morphological marking to have plurality, therefore we will likely be succinctly unclear regarding the if i suggest that or even more regarding something, once we should be much more a lot of time-winded whenever we want to be certain. For this reason (in the Pinyin orthography with tone numbers after every syllable):
Such as of some other style of morphological packing, English can make iconify regarding icon and -ify, meaning “generate to your a symbol.” Possibly it’s sweet having a single word because of it, but we are able to usually have told you “generate on the an icon.” And some dialects lack one general treatment for change an excellent noun X on the a verb definition “making into (an) X”, and so must use the stretched-winded function regarding phrase. In fact, the process for the English is pretty erratic: we state vaporize perhaps not *vaporify, and you can emulsify perhaps not *emulsionify, etc.